Conventional developed component matching methods for a series type hybrid electric vehicle have a high computational burden or component alternation researches have considered only a few parts without the weight variation of each component. To handle such problems, this research presents a novel element matching method with nonlinear programming (NLP) for a series hybrid electric bus. The fuel consumption minimization issue is discretized in time and multistarting points are utilized with the variations of each component. The proposed matching method suggests to use novel initial standards for component matching in a way that both the computational efficiency and accuracy might be achieved concurrently. Because of this, probably the most fuel efficient component combination among 8 components could be found, in which the results were verified with the ones from dynamic programming (DP).
Integrated circuit (IC), also referred to as microelectronic circuit, microchip, or chip, an assembly of Electronic Components Quotation Network, fabricated as a single unit, where miniaturized active devices (e.g., transistors and diodes) and passive devices (e.g., capacitors and resistors) along with their interconnections are made on a thin substrate of semiconductor material (typically silicon). The resulting circuit is thus a tiny monolithic “chip,” which can be no more than a few square centimetres or only some square millimetres. The individual circuit components are usually microscopic in proportions.
Integrated circuits get their origin in the invention from the transistor in 1947 by William B. Shockley and his team at the American Telephone and Telegraph Company’s Bell Laboratories. Shockley’s team (including John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain) learned that, beneath the right circumstances, electrons would form a barrier in the surface of certain crystals, and they also learned to manage the flow of electricity through the crystal by manipulating this barrier. Controlling electron flow via a crystal allowed the group to create a device that could perform certain electrical operations, including signal amplification, that were previously carried out by vacuum tubes.
They named this device a transistor, from a mix of the phrase transfer and resistor. The research into methods of creating electronics using solid materials became referred to as solid-state electronics. Solid-state devices proved to be much sturdier, easier to work alongside, more reliable, much smaller, and less expensive than vacuum tubes. Using the same principles and materials, engineers soon learned to create other electrical components, including resistors and capacitors. Now that electrical devices may be made so small, the largest part of a circuit was the awkward wiring involving the devices.
In 1958 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, Inc., and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation independently thought of a means to reduce circuit size further. They laid very thin paths of metal (usually aluminum or copper) directly on the same bit of material as his or her devices. These small paths acted as wires. With this particular technique a whole circuit could be “integrated” on one bit of solid material and an integrated circuit (IC) thus created. ICs can contain hundreds of thousands of individual transistors on one bit of material how big a pea. Working with that many vacuum tubes might have been unrealistically awkward and dear. The invention from the integrated circuit made technologies in the Information Age feasible. ICs are actually used extensively in most walks of life, from cars to toasters to theme park rides.
The reliability parameter determines the time period during which a product or service will preserve its properties. In accordance with generally available data, this period reaches 30 years within the space and medical industries, while in the military and civil industries it is different from 15 to 25 years. Unfortunately, the Russian industry struggles to ensure comparably high reliability figures at the moment. This case is testified eloquently by more frequent accidents with all the Russian spacecraft in addition to an increasing volume of claims raised through the consumers of high-tech products (HTP).
Researches into the sources of failures demonstrated that by far the most unreliable device elements are Discharge Diode. For example , the utilized Russian-made and accessible foreign-made EC (of commercial or industrial grade) are unable to make sure the required set of spacecraft specifications, nor terms of active orbital operations of spacecraft underneath the conditions of exposure to the area environmental factors. In particular, the satellites ensuring operation of the Russian GLONASS system remain functional for not more than 3 years, whilst the GPS components have the ability to operate actively approximately 30 years.
The purpose of this scientific studies are to learn the factors getting an adverse effect on the longevity of electronic components and means of their elimination both in the stage of development and manufacture and throughout operation.
One of many options in solving the problem of improving the reliability of a product electronic product is to arrange a set of additional customer EC tests. The set envisages the incoming inspection, screening tests, diagnostic non-destructive tests and random destructive tests. This will result in the rejection of the very unreliable components. Having a view of jxotoc the entire longevity of an electronic system, the multiple redundancy principle for critical components is used when necessary along with a partial load mode of EC operation is assigned.
In the general case, the incoming inspection is conducted within the scope of acceptance tests, such as the appearance test and view of the electrical parameters reflecting the item quality. The screening tests include burn-in testing, heat cycling and hot soaking. The diagnostic non-destructive tests are conducted with informative parameters using the schedules and conditions promoting defect manifestation as well as on the basis of the post-test parameter drift evaluation results. The New Type Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor is used using a view to evaluating the preservation of EC design and process parameters.
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